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Research into the therapeutic action of writing[ edit ] The expressive writing paradigm[ edit ] Expressive writing is a form of writing therapy developed primarily by James W.
Pennebaker in the late s. The seminal expressive writing study  instructed participants in the experimental group to write about a 'past trauma', expressing their very deepest thoughts and feelings surrounding it. In contrast, control participants were asked to write as objectively and factually as possible about neutral topics e.
For both groups, the timescale was 15 minutes of continuous writing repeated over four consecutive days. It was also instructed that should a participant run out of things to write, they should go back to the beginning and repeat themselves, perhaps writing a little differently.
Typical writing instructions include: For the next 4 days, I would like you to write your very deepest thoughts and feelings about the most traumatic experience of your entire life or an extremely important emotional issue that has affected you and your life. In your writing, I'd like you to really let go and explore your deepest emotions and thoughts.
You might tie your topic to your relationships with others, including parents, lovers, friends or relatives; to your past, your present or your future; or to who you have been, who you would like to be or who you are now.
You may write about the same general issues or experiences on all days of writing or about different topics each day. All of your writing will be completely confidential. Don't worry about spelling, grammar or sentence structure. The only rule is that once you begin writing, you continue until the time is up.
Several measurements were made before and after, but the most striking finding was that relative to the control group, the experimental group made significantly fewer visits to a physician in the following months.
Although many report being upset by the writing experience, they also find it valuable and meaningful. The significantly increased lymphocyte response led to speculation that expressive writing enhances immunocompetence. The results of a preliminary study of 40 people diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder suggests that routinely engaging in expressive writing may be effective in reducing symptoms of depression.
Following on from Pennebaker's original work, there has been a renewed interest in the therapeutic value of abreaction. This was first discussed by Josef Breuer and Freud in Studies on Hysteria but not much explored since. Studies have shown that expressive writing results in significant improvements in various biochemical markers of physical and immune functioning Pennebaker et al, ; Esterling et al, ; Petrie et al, ; Booth et al, This suggests that written disclosure may reduce the physiological stress on the body caused by inhibition, although it does not necessarily mean that disinhibition is the causal mechanism underlying these biological effects.
Therefore, although inhibition may play a part, the observed benefits of writing are not entirely due to reductions in inhibition. Other theories related to writing therapy[ edit ] An additional line of enquiry, which has particular bearing on the difference between talking and writing, derives from Robert Ornstein 's studies into the bicameral structure of the brain.
If this is the case, then writing might use or even stimulate parts of the brain that are not stimulated by talking. It is helpful to write it down, in other words, in safety and in non-judgment.
Trauma can be quite isolating. Those who have suffered need to understand how they feel and also to try to communicate that to others. They simply "enter" into a private "chat room" and engage in an ongoing text dialogue in "real time".
Given the huge disjunction between the amount of mental illness compared with the paucity of skilled resources, new ways have been sought to provide therapy other than drugs.
In the more advanced societies pressure for cost-effective treatments, supported by evidence-based results, has come from both insurance companies and government agencies.
Hence the decline in long term intensive psychoanalysis and the rise of much briefer forms, such as cognitive therapy. Where both parties remain anonymous the client benefits from the online disinhibition effect ; that is to say, feels freer to disclose memories, thoughts and feelings that they might withhold in a face-to-face situation.
Both client and therapist have time for reflecting on the past and recapturing forgotten memories, time for privately processing their reactions and giving thought to their own responses. With e-therapyspace is eliminated and time expanded.
Overall it considerably reduces the amount of therapeutic input, as well as the speed and pressure that therapists habitually have to work under.
The anonymity and invisibility provides a therapeutic environment that comes much closer than classical analysis to Freud 's ideal of the "analytic blank screen".The Purdue University Online Writing Lab serves writers from around the world and the Purdue University Writing Lab helps writers on Purdue's campus.
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🔥Citing and more! Add citations directly into your paper, Check for unintentional plagiarism and check for writing mistakes. On an APA-style reference page, the rules for titles are a little plombier-nemours.com short, a title you would italicize within the body of a paper will also be italicized on a reference page.
However, a title you'd place in quotation marks within the body of the paper (such as the title of an article within a journal) will be written in normal lettering and will not be in . Tailor writing instruction to meet the needs of children with LD Adaptations.
After placing her paper on the teacher's desk, Charlie Brown's sister, Sally, returns to her desk. Term Paper: Format of Citations and References 1.
Introduction. As you write your term papers, it will be important for you to document where you obtained the information cited in your report.