Geography[ edit ] The front in the east was much longer than that in the west. This had a drastic effect on the nature of the warfare. While World War I on the Western Front developed into trench warfarethe battle lines on the Eastern Front were much more fluid and trenches never truly developed. This was because the greater length of the front ensured that the density of soldiers in the line was lower so the line was easier to break.
June 28 in Sarajevo We'll start with the facts and work back: The events of July and early August are a classic case of "one thing led to another" - otherwise known as the treaty alliance system.
Ferdinand's death at the hands of the Black Handa Serbian nationalist secret society, set in train a mindlessly mechanical series of events that culminated in the world's first global war.
Austria-Hungary's Reaction Austria-Hungary's reaction to the death of their heir who was in any case not greatly beloved by the Emperor, Franz Josefor his government was three weeks in coming.
Arguing that the Serbian government was implicated in the machinations of the Black Hand whether she was or not remains unclear, but it appears unlikelythe Austro-Hungarians opted to take the opportunity to stamp its authority upon the Serbians, crushing the nationalist movement there and cementing Austria-Hungary's influence in the Balkans.
It did so by issuing an ultimatum to Serbia which, in the extent of its demand that the assassins be brought to justice effectively nullified Serbia's sovereignty.
Sir Edward Greythe British Foreign Secretary, was moved to comment that he had "never before seen one State address to another independent State a document of so formidable a character. However, Serbia had long had Slavic ties with Russia, an altogether different proposition for Austria-Hungary.
Whilst not really expecting that Russia would be drawn into the dispute to any great extent other than through words of diplomatic protest, the Austro-Hungarian government sought assurances from her ally, Germany, that she would come to her aid should the unthinkable happen and Russia declared war on Austria-Hungary.
Germany readily agreed, even encouraged Austria-Hungary's warlike stance. Quite why we'll come back to later. One Thing Led to Another So then, we have the following remarkable sequence of events that led inexorably to the 'Great War' - a name that had been touted even before the coming of the conflict.
Austria-Hungary, unsatisfied with Serbia's response to her ultimatum which in the event was almost entirely placatory: Russia, bound by treaty to Serbia, announced mobilisation of its vast army in her defence, a slow process that would take around six weeks to complete.
Germany, allied to Austria-Hungary by treaty, viewed the Russian mobilisation as an act of war against Austria-Hungary, and after scant warning declared war on Russia on 1 August.
France, bound by treaty to Russia, found itself at war against Germany and, by extension, on Austria-Hungary following a German declaration on 3 August. Germany was swift in invading neutral Belgium so as to reach Paris by the shortest possible route. Britain, allied to France by a more loosely worded treaty which placed a "moral obligation" upon her to defend France, declared war against Germany on 4 August.
Her reason for entering the conflict lay in another direction: With Germany's invasion of Belgium on 4 August, and the Belgian King's appeal to Britain for assistance, Britain committed herself to Belgium's defence later that day.
Like France, she was by extension also at war with Austria-Hungary. With Britain's entry into the war, her colonies and dominions abroad variously offered military and financial assistance, and included Australia, Canada, India, New Zealand and the Union of South Africa. Japan, honouring a military agreement with Britain, declared war on Germany on 23 August Two days later Austria-Hungary responded by declaring war on Japan.
Italy, although allied to both Germany and Austria-Hungary, was able to avoid entering the fray by citing a clause enabling it to evade its obligations to both.
In short, Italy was committed to defend Germany and Austria-Hungary only in the event of a 'defensive' war; arguing that their actions were 'offensive' she declared instead a policy of neutrality.
The following year, in Mayshe finally joined the conflict by siding with the Allies against her two former allies. Click here for more extensive information detailing who entered the war - and when. The Tangle of Alliances Such were the mechanics that brought the world's major nations into the war at one time or another.
It's clear from the summary above that the alliance system was as much at fault as anything in bringing about the scale of the conflict. What was intended as a strictly limited war - a brief war - between accuser and accused, Austria-Hungary and Serbia, rapidly escalated into something that was beyond the expectations of even the most warlike ministers in Berlin and certainly Vienna, which quickly became alarmed at spiralling events in late July and sought German reassurances.
It's possible to delve deeply into European history in the quest to unearth the roots of the various alliances that were at play in However, for our purposes it serves to date the origins of the core alliances back to Bismarck's renowned intrigues, as he set about creating a unified Germany from the loose assembly of German confederated states in the s.
Bismarck's Greater Germany Bismarck, first Prime Minister of Prussia and then Chancellor of the German Empire once he had assembled itset about the construction of Germany through high politics judiciously assisted by war against Austria and France.
Appointed Prime Minister and Foreign Minister of Prussia by Kaiser Wilhelm I inBismarck was consumed with a desire to achieve the creation of a German Empire out of the collection of smaller German states largely led by Austria's influence another German-speaking nation.
His first step was to oust Austria as the prime influence among these German states. He achieved this by engineering war with Austria in over disputed territory in the duchy of Holstein much against the wishes of his own Kaiser.After the war, and as the Treaty of Versailles made so painfully clear, Germany and Austria-Hungary were held primarily responsible for starting the four-year conflict, one that resulted in the.
treaty ending the ottoman – russian war by which russia returned territory to the empire. After six years of war between the Ottoman Empire and Russia, the Treaty of Bucharest was concluded between 16 and 18 May World War I started in for the same reason that World War II started in —a government in Berlin wanted a war, though not the war it ultimately got.
The effects of World War I gave rise to the Russian Revolution of By the end of , two years of total war had placed enormous strain on all combatant nations. None felt this more severely than Russia, which had entered the war confident but in a precarious political, economic and social state.
The Kingdom of Romania was neutral for the first two years of World War I, entering on the side of the Allied powers from 27 August until Central Power occupation led to the Treaty of Bucharest in May , before reentering the war on 10 November It had the most significant oil fields in Europe, and Germany eagerly bought its petroleum, as well as food plombier-nemours.comon: Romania.
The Treaty of Bucharest was a peace treaty between Romania on one side and the Central Powers on the other, following the stalemate reached after the campaign of –17 and Romania's isolation after Russia's unilateral exit from World War I (see Treaty of Brest-Litovsk).Signatories: German Empire, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria, Romania.