Mercy Corps and Think Peace In their September report, Mercy Corps and Think Peace through a series of interviews with youth members of armed groups, non-violent youth, and community leaders in Mali aim to trace the pathways that youth take to armed groups, as well as the factors that enable others to resist using violence. This work seeks to enhance understanding of the pathways to violence in the Malian context, but also reveal the capacities that support youth in remaining peaceful— even in an environment of widespread insecurity.
Some studies have reported that adolescents use popular music to deal with loneliness and to take control of their emotional status or mood. Although time devoted to listening to music varies with age group, American youth listen to music from 1.
Still, a study performed with a small sample of at-risk youth revealed an average of up to 6. These data support the idea that the prevalence of music-listening in adolescents may be even higher than that of television viewing.
The reason for this is that popular music is present almost everywhere, from the supermarket to the mall, often as background music. It also is easily available through the radio, various recordings, the Internet, and new technologies, 1125 allowing adolescents to hear it in diverse settings and situations, alone or shared with friends.
Adolescents are not the only young consumers of popular music. Research on popular music has explored several areas such as its effects on schoolwork, 31 social interactions, mood and affect, 2026273233 and particularly behavior. Forty-two percent of the songs on these CDs contained very explicit sexual content.
In refuting concerns about the effect of lyrics, some have argued that children and adolescents use music only for entertainment, Report on youth violence little or no attention is paid to the words, and if any attention is given, understanding tends to be limited and related to the experiences lived by the listener.
The authors of that study described an association between negative emotional response to music and risk-taking behaviors and even suggested that what triggers risky behavior in some adolescents is the negative emotional response rather than the type of music.
Scheel and Westefeld 61 supported this suggestion in Heavy metal and some rock music have been associated in some studies with an increased risk of suicide. In a study in which adolescents who preferred heavy metal and rap music were compared with those who preferred other types of music, results indicated that the former consistently showed below-average current and elementary school grades, with a history of counseling in elementary school for academic problems.
The preference for heavy metal music, rap, and associated genres among adolescents must alert us to an increased vulnerability and tendency toward risky behaviors. Adolescents at risk and with a feeling of alienation because of previous failures or problems tend to prefer these types of music, which might reflect their pessimistic view of life and the world.
Research related to music and its effects on children and adolescents has been expanded into another expression of popular music: Music videos are appealing to children and adolescents.
Considering that music videos mix 2 media that are attractive to youth television and popular musicit is important to study their effects on a young audience and to be concerned about the messages these music videos promote. For a performance video, an artist or a group is filmed during a performance, usually a concert.
Concept videos, on the other hand, tell the viewer a story that may or may not evolve from the song. This story may sometimes add content to the lyrics and provide a particular interpretation that is reinforced every time the viewer hears the song.
The prevalence of music-video—watching has been studied in both the United States and Europe.
More recently, a study revealed that a sample of to year-olds watched music videos on an average of 4. This study revealed that the percentage of violence in music videos ranged from When analyzed according to type of music, rap videos had the highest portrayal of violence Using the same sample, another study revealed that although the percentage of videos that portrayed alcohol use showed no significant differences among networks, the percentage portrayed was still significant, ranging from Of the networks, MTV had the highest percentage of alcohol representation and also the highest percentage of videos that portrayed smoking behaviors Of these videos, rap music videos showed a higher content of alcohol or tobacco use than did other types of videos.
Studies performed by Smith and Boyson in 93 and Gruber et al in 91 validated these findings. Analysis of the content in music videos is important, because research has reported that exposure to violence, sexual messages, sexual stereotypes, and use of substances of abuse in music videos might produce significant changes in behaviors and attitudes of young viewers.
Kaestle et al 92 reported in that in a group of seventh- and eighth-grade boys, watching music videos and professional wrestling was associated with an increased acceptance of date rape. A survey performed among adolescents revealed that there was an association between music-video—watching and permissive sexual behaviors.
InWingwood et al 89 reported on a study in which black female adolescents with a median exposure to rap music videos of 14 hours per week were followed for 12 months. After controlling for all the covariates, greater exposure to rap music videos was independently associated with a wide variety of risky behaviors such as increased promiscuity and use of drugs and alcohol, among others.In their September report, Mercy Corps and Think Peace (through a series of interviews with youth members of armed groups, non-violent youth, and community leaders in Mali) aim to trace the pathways that youth take to armed groups, as well as the factors that enable others to resist using violence.
Youth violence is an adverse childhood experience and is connected to other forms of violence, including child abuse and neglect, teen dating violence, adult intimate . Special Feature: Youth Violence.
Youth violence has long been a major challenge for American police chiefs, schools, and municipal leaders. An enduring threat, it undermines the public safety and economic health of cities across the nation.
This report from the United States Surgeon General is the result of a review of the scientific literature and analyses of new data relating to youth violence. This report, the first Surgeon General's report on youth violence in the United States, summarizes an extensive body of research and seeks to clarify seemingly contradictory trends, such as the discrepancies noted above between official records of youth violence and young people's self-reports of .
MENTORING: AN INVESTMENT IN REDUCING YOUTH VIOLENCE Youth violence remains a critical challenge facing many American communities. In , an average of 13 young people 81 percent more likely to report participating regularly in sports or extracurricular activities.