Hypertension in african americans and the middle passage

Table II shows the health benefits that can be achieved with this modest reduction. Financial Impact Diabetes care in the U. Diabetes care in the U. Diabetics miss an average of 8.

Hypertension in african americans and the middle passage

May 27, By Osagie K. Which is why a recent Ask Dr. Oz segment on Oprah is so troubling. An audience member asked: Mehmet Oz turned to Winfrey to ask: Proponents argue that slaves who survived the food and water deprivation, dysentery and vomiting endemic on this grueling voyage had a genetic predisposition to retaining sodium.

This is believed to have loaded the African-American gene pool with genes favoring salt retention, which in turn generates high blood pressure. Few scientific theories have been so thoroughly discredited.


Since it was first popularized by Dr. Clarence Grim inthere has been absolutely no biomedical data supporting the slavery hypothesis as a legitimate scientific conclusion.

In fact, only one supporting peer-reviewed article has been published, and it has been soundly refuted. For a physician to casually discuss this on a nationally syndicated talk show wearing scrubs, no less as if it is medical fact is at best misleading and at worst pop-culture medical malpractice.

The slavery hypothesis is questionable at face value. Also important is the fact that no contemporary West African population suffers from rampant hypertension.

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For a bottleneck theory to hold up, the alleged "salt sensitive gene" would have had to play a significant role for the roughly 87 percent that survived, implying that this gene was relatively common among enslaved West Africans. This has not been the case.

Richard Cooper has shown, for example, that the prevalence of hypertension among Nigerians is significantly lower than white Americans, while Germans and Finns have a higher prevalence than black Americans. Surely, much more is going on here than genes.

Like a game of whack-a-mole, the slavery hypothesis keeps popping up in the media, popular culture and even medical texts no matter how many times it is slammed down.

Hypertension and Coronary Heart Disease | plombier-nemours.com

It has come to symbolize the incessant way in which unfounded biological theories of racial difference continue to thrive despite significant evidence to the contrary. Countless studies show that stressful environments and situations raise blood pressure.

And few things are as consistently stressful as being black.

Hypertension in african americans and the middle passage

By almost every measurable social category -- such as income, infant mortality, education, incarceration rates and employment -- blacks fare poorly, making everyday life a constant struggle. Reducing health disparities to genes obscures more sensible conversations about the contemporary nature of discrimination, how it affects minority health and how best to improve health outcomes.

Racial disparities in health are real. But a bit of caution should be exercised when playing the gene card to explain them.

Hypertension in african americans and the middle passage

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Bacon's Rebellion was an armed rebellion in by Virginia settlers led by Nathaniel Bacon against the rule of Governor William plombier-nemours.com colony's dismissive policy as it related to the political challenges of its western frontier, along with other challenges including leaving Bacon out of his inner circle, refusing to allow Bacon to be a part of his fur trade with the Indians, and Doeg.

May 17,  · Winfrey replied studiously: "African Americans who survived [the slave trade's Middle Passage] were those who could hold more salt in their body." To .

A Closer Look at African American Men and High Blood Pressure Control: A Review of Psychosocial Factors and Systems-Level Interventions. Atlanta: U.S.

Department of Health and Human Services; Photos: The photographs used in this publication are for illustration purposes only.

They. show African American men from various age . The “slavery hypertension hypothesis” states that the higher prevalence of hypertension among blacks could have resulted from an enhanced ability to conserve salt by slaves, protecting them from fatal salt-depletive diseases during the stormy Atlantic passage, such as diarrhea and vomiting.5 This condition would induce hypertension when they and their descendants consumed the much higher sodium .

Hypertension In African Americans And The Middle Passage History Essay September 15, admin Articles 0 In , Wilson and Grim () sought to explicate why African Americans have a higher incidence of high blood pressure.

Human Differentiation: Evolution of Racial Characteristics