How to write a retraction

My Tweets That study reporting worrisome levels of zinc in tuna?

How to write a retraction

The test location was later localized at 47 deg. Due to the position ambiguity of the initial detection the Vela optical sensors were not imaging sensors and could did not detect locationthe location is variously described as being in the Indian Ocean or South Atlantic.

The characteristics of the light how to write a retraction indicated that it was a low kiloton explosion approximately 3 kt. The hydroacoustic signal indicated a low altitude explosion. A major and lingering controversy erupted over the interpretation of this apparent detection.

The Vela satellite program was an nuclear detonation NUDET detection system setup after the limited test ban and was designed to detect nuclear explosions in space and later air. There were two groups of Vela satellites developed. The original Vela were equipped only with sensors for space detection and were launched in three pairs between and They operated for at least five years, far beyond their nominal design life of six months.

A second generation called Advanced Vela were launched inand These satellites added "bahngmeters" - optical sensors for detecting atmospheric tests - and had a nominal design life of 18 months, but were later rated with a seven year lifespan, although they were all operated for more than ten years, with the last one being turned off in -- after 14 years of successful operation [JPL ] ; [Astronautix ].

Vela is presumably one of the Advanced Vela pair launch launched on 23 May perigee 77, km, apogeekm, inclination The Vela satellite system had previously made 41 similar detections of atmospheric tests, each of which had been subsequently confirmed through other means. The detection came at a bad time for the Carter administration which would be under pressure to take definite action if the detection were accepted as accurate.

Inescapably it seemed that either Israel, South Africa, or both, would be implicated. Consequently a panel of scientists from academia known as the Ruina Panel, after its head Dr.

Jack Ruina, was created to review the reliability of the Vela data. Since this satellite was operating past its expected lifespan, and its electromagnetic pulse EMP sensor was inoperative, questions about the reliability of the detection were raised. The panel ultimately concluded in a report released in the summer of that the signal "was probably not from a nuclear explosion.

WRITER'S NOTE: This post engendered a lot of empassioned responses. Some of the responses were directed at the question I posed; Others were directed at me. I normally don't shy away from. The following is a list of notable one-on-one duels or single combats in history and in legend or fiction. Recently, a rash of news outlets posted concerns that canned tuna and other products may contain potentially dangerous levels of zinc. They were all wrong.

Although we cannot rule out that this signal was of nuclear origin". This conclusion has cast a pall over public confidence in the ability of the U. Advanced Vela 5 The Start of the Controversy The instruments used by the Vela satellites for detecting atmospheric nuclear explosions are called "bhangmeters".

These are optical sensors that record light fluctuations on a sub-millisecond time scale. All atmospheric nuclear explosions produce a unique and easy to detect signature: The second peak may take from hundreds of milliseconds to several seconds to develop, depending on the size of the explosion, and lasts a comparable period of time.

This phenomenon occurs because the surface of the early fireball is quickly overtaken by the expanding hydrodynamic shock wave. This shock wave acts as an optical shutter, hiding the small but extremely hot and bright early fireball behind an opaque ionized shock front which is comparatively quite dim.

No natural phenomenon is known that can imitate this signature. In fact it is reported that no false alarms have ever been detected with a Vela bhangmeter. Every other double-flash detection has later been confirmed to be an actual nuclear test.

According to Seymour Hersh, the idea of referring this detection to an advisory panel was floated before any potential problems with the detection had been noted.

An urgent meeting to discuss the handling of this event was held in the White House situation room soon after the intelligence report on the incident reached the Oval Office. At this meeting the probability of a nuclear test was placed at 90 percent or better.

Either Keeny or Press accounts of the participants vary suggested convening a panel - at least as much as a delaying tactic as an effort to ensure that the data was carefully evaluated [Hersh ]. There is no question that a confirmed detection of a nuclear test would have put the Carter administration in a very difficult position.

President Carter had placed great emphasis on nuclear non-proliferation. The administration had been a troubled one, with the recent collapse of a major ally in the Middle East Iran as one of many problems. The upcoming re-election campaign was certain to be an uphill battle.

If Israel were to be linked to a nuclear test as seemed likely, it it was real the political damage from imposing sanctions, or not imposing sanctions, would likely be severe.

how to write a retraction

Within several weeks the eminent membership of the panel had been selected - Jack P.Al the Silent Crusader–Here are two more MUSTs for the SSPX: Stay away from and speak loudly against Demonic Rome.

The SSPX cannot insure the survival of the Faith without these two crucial steps. ProPublica erred when it reported in that Gina Haspel was in charge of a secret prison in Thailand during the infamous interrogation of an al-Qaida. Science, it turns out, is an excellent place to find such people.

After all, the scientific method requires you to recognize when you’re wrong—to do so happily, in fact. WRITER'S NOTE: This post engendered a lot of empassioned responses. Some of the responses were directed at the question I posed; Others were directed at me.

I normally don't shy away from. My interest in moving universities towards balance encompasses gender equality, the communication of scientific results, promoting research-based education and leadership development more generally.

Seven score and ten years ago, the forefathers of this media institution brought forth to its audience a judgment so flawed, so tainted by hubris, so lacking in the perspective history would bring.

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