Their hostility toward Caesar serves to introduce the deep political divide that will become the central issue of the play. Caesar's triumph coincides with the feast of Lupercal, which was celebrated on February 15th.
Track and field-style events are among the oldest of all sporting competitionsas running, jumping and throwing are natural and universal forms of human physical expression.
The first recorded examples of organized track and field events at a sports festival are the Ancient Olympic Games. The stone put and weight throw competitions popular among Celtic societies in Ireland and Scotland were precursors to the modern shot put and hammer throw events.
One of the last track and field events to develop was the pole vaultwhich stemmed from competitions such as the Fierljeppen contests in the Northern European Lowlands in the 18th century. An early model of hurdling at the Detroit Athletic Club in Discrete modern track and field competitions, separate from general sporting festivals, were first recorded in the 19th century.
These were typically organised by educational institutionsmilitary organisations and sports clubs as competitions between rival establishments.
The Royal Shrewsbury School Hunt is the oldest running club in the world, with written records going back to and evidence that it was established by Runners were entered by "owners" and named as though they were horses. The AAA Championshipsthe de facto British national championships despite being for England only, have been held annually since 3 July with breaks only during two world wars and — American athlete Jim Thorpe lost his Olympic medals having taken expense money for playing baseball, violating Olympic amateurism rules, before the Games.
The establishment of the modern Olympic Games at the end of the 19th century marked a new high for track and field. The Olympic athletics programmecomprising track and field events plus a marathon race, contained many of the foremost sporting competitions of the Summer Olympics. The Olympics also consolidated the use of metric measurements in international track and field events, both for race distances and for measuring jumps and throws.
The Olympic athletics programme greatly expanded over the next decades, and track and field contests remained among the Games' most prominent. The Olympics was the elite competition for track and field, and only amateur sportsmen could compete. Track and field continued to be a largely amateur sport, as this rule was strictly enforced: Jim Thorpe was stripped of his track and field medals from the Olympics after it was revealed that he had taken expense money for playing baseball, violating Olympic amateurism rules, before the Games.
His medals were reinstated 29 years after his death. The National Collegiate Athletic Association held their first Men's Outdoor Track and Field Championship inmaking it one of the most prestigious competitions for students, and this was soon followed by the introduction of track and field at the inaugural World Student Games in Alice Milliat argued for the inclusion of women at the Olympics, but the International Olympic Committee refused.
She founded the International Women's Sports Federation in and, alongside a growing women's sports movement in Europe and North America, the group initiated of the Women's Olympiad held annually from to These events ultimately led to the introduction of five track and field events for women in the athletics at the Summer Olympics.
Also inphysical education advocate Zhang Ruizhen called for greater equality and participation of women in Chinese track and field. Marking an increasingly inclusive approach to the sport, major track and field competitions for disabled athletes were first introduced at the Summer Paralympics.
Carl Lewis was among the athletes who helped increase track and field's profile. With the rise of numerous regional championships, as well as the growth in Olympic-style multi-sport events such as the Commonwealth Games and the Pan-American Gamescompetitions between international track and field athletes became widespread.
From the s onwards, the sport gained more exposure and commercial appeal through television coverage and the increasing wealth of nations. After over half a century of amateurism, the amateur status of the sport began to be displaced by growing professionalism in the late s.
Many world records were broken in this period, and the added political element between competitors of the United States, East Germanyand the Soviet Union, in reaction to the Cold Waronly served to stoke the sport's popularity. The increase in the commercial capacity of track and field was also met with developments in the application of sports scienceand there were many changes to coaching methods, athlete's diet regimes, training facilities and sports equipment.
This was also accompanied by an increase in the use of performance-enhancing drugs. State-sponsored doping in s and s East Germanythe Soviet Union and early 21st century Russiaas well as prominent individual cases such as those of Olympic gold medallists Ben Johnson and Marion Jonesdamaged the public image and marketability of the sport.
From the s onwards, track and field became increasingly more professional and international, as the IAAF gained over two hundred member nations. Inthe series was replaced by the more lucrative IAAF Diamond Leaguea fourteen-meeting series held in Europe, Asia, North America and the Middle East—the first ever worldwide annual series of track and field meetings.Questions.
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