Ethnic Nationalism and Civic Nationalism The discrimination between civic nationalism and ethnic nationalism is common in writings on nationalism and nations, whether it be as the civic-ethnic division, the political-cultural, or the Western-Eastern division. Writers, both modernists and ethnicists working within the paradigm of modernity, such as Hans Kohn, Liah Greenfeld, John Plamenatz, John Hutchinson, Ernest Gellner and Anthony Smith have all included this distinction in their writings. The historical differences in the development of the nation-state between the West and the East in Europe have enforced these theoretical-cum-practical divisions. In fact the East-West divide is less a geographic divide than an historic one.
After the Treaty of the Pyrenees the Roussillon became part of the Kingdom of France along with other territories. During the first centuries of the Reconquistathe Franks drove the Muslims south of the Pyrenees.
To prevent future incursions, Charlemagne created the Marca Hispanica in CE, which consisted of a series of petty kingdoms serving as buffer states between the Frankish kingdom and Al-Andalus. Between and CE, the area became a hotbed of Frankish-Muslim conflict.
His action brought peace to a turbulent feudal system and sowed the seeds of Catalan identity. According to several scholars, the term "Catalan" and "Catalonia" emerged near the end of the 11th century and appeared in the Usatges of Two factors fostered this identity: While the temporary lack of foreign invasions contributed to Catalonia's stability, it was not a major cause.
Rather, it provided a zone for sociopolitical development.
For example, after the County of Barcelona signed an agreement with the Kingdom of Aragonto create the Crown of Aragon in through a dynastic unionthe system was designed to mutually check both the king's and the nobility's powers, while the small but growing numbers of free citizens and bourgeoisie would tactically take sides with the king in order to diminish typically feudal institutions.
Bythe king approved a series of pacts, called the Usatges, which "explicitly acknowledged legal equality between burghers … and nobility" Woolard In addition, the Aragonese gentry established the Cortsa representative body of nobles, bishopsand abbots that counterbalanced the King's authority.
By the end of the 13th century, "the monarch needed the consent of the Corts to approve laws or collect revenue" McRoberts The first Catalan constitutions were promulgated by the Corts of Barcelona infollowing the Roman tradition of the Codex.
Subsequent conquests expanded into the Mediterranean, reaching SardiniaCorsicaSicilyNaples and Greece, so by the Crown of Aragon "presided over one of the most extensive and powerful mercantile empires of the Mediterranean during this period" Woolard Catalonia's economic success formed a powerful merchant class, which wielded the Corts as its political weapon.
It also produced a smaller middle class, or menestralia, that was "composed of artisans, shopkeepers and workshop owners" McRoberts Over the 13th and 14th centuries, these merchants accrued so much wealth and political sway that they were able to place a significant check on the power of the Aragonese crown.
By the 15th century the Aragonese monarch "was not considered legitimate until he had sworn to respect the basic law of the land in the presence of the Corts" Balcells 9.
This balance of power is a classic example of pactisme, or contractualism, which seems to be a defining feature of the Catalan political culture.
Along with political and economic success, Catalan culture flourished in the 13th and 14th centuries. During this period, the Catalan vernacular gradually replaced Latin as the language of culture and government.
Scholars rewrote everything from ancient Visigothic law to religious sermons in Catalan Woolard Wealthy citizens bolstered Catalan's literary appeal through poetry contests and history pageants dubbed the Jocs Floralsor "Floral Games.
The medieval heyday of Catalan culture would not last, however. After a bout of famine and plague hit Catalonia in the midth century, the population dropped fromtoMcRoberts This exacerbated feudal tensions, sparking serf revolts in rural areas and political impasses in Barcelona.
Financial issues and the burden of multiple dependencies abroad further strained the region. Inthe king died without leaving an heir to the throne. Finding no legitimate alternative, leaders of the realms composing the Crown of Aragon agreed by means of the Compromise of Caspe that the vacant throne should go to the Castilian Ferdinand Ias he was among the nearest relatives of the recently extinguished House of Barcelona through a maternal line.
The new dynasty began to assert the authority of the Crown, leading to a perception among the nobility that their traditional privileges associated with their position in society were at risk. During the conflict, John II, in the face of French aggression in the Pyrenees  "had his heir Ferdinand married to Isabella I of Castilethe heiress to the Castilian throne, in a bid to find outside allies" Balcells Their dynastic union, which came to be known as the Catholic Monarchsmarked the de facto unification of the Kingdom of Spain.Catalan nationalism is the ideology asserting that the Catalans are a nation..
Intellectually, Catalan nationalism can be said to have commenced as a political philosophy in the unsuccessful attempts to establish a federal state in Spain in the context of the First Republic.
Valentí Almirall i Llozer and other intellectuals that participated in this process set up a new political ideology in. CHAPTER ONE Ethnic Nationalism and Civic Nationalism. The discrimination between civic nationalism and ethnic nationalism is common in writings on nationalism and nations, whether it be as the civic-ethnic division, the political-cultural, or the Western-Eastern division.
Nationalism is an ideology that emphasizes loyalty, devotion, or allegiance to a nation or nation-state and holds that such obligations outweigh other individual or group interests.
Revolution: Revolution, in social and political science, a major, sudden, and hence typically violent alteration in government and in related associations and structures.
The term is used by analogy in such expressions as the Industrial Revolution, where it refers to a radical and profound change in economic.
Chapter The Age of Nationalism. Share Tweet Post Message.
Next Chapter. Napoleon III in France. From to , the parliament ruled instead by decree and endeavors that led to the introduction of universal male suffrage in proved to be largely unsuccessful;.
- Introduction Nationalism can be defined as sprit or aspirations common to the whole of a nation, also someone that devote and loyalty to own plombier-nemours.comalism is a form of love toward your country, this form of love has been trained since young the honour being one of your country, willing to do anything include risking your own life to.