A modern production of lysistrata essay

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A modern production of lysistrata essay

Pantelis Michelakis bio In the last century and a half, the performance reception of Greek tragedy has been more widespread and varied than in any other similar period since the fifth century BC. One could argue that, despite all its popularity in previous centuries, the revival of Greek drama on the modern stage was established as a cultural practice only with the consolidation of the modern nation-states in the second half of the nineteenth century.

A modern production of lysistrata essay

Greek tragedy was reinvented within institutional frameworks that today we can easily recognize as "modern," namely schools and universities, and professional and avant-garde theater. It is therefore hardly surprising that the study of the reception of Greek drama on the modern stage is usually based on categorical—and hierarchical—distinctions between such frameworks.

For instance, scholars often privilege the reception of Greek tragedy in avant-garde theater for its critical approach to contemporary culture. Theater festivals, and more specifically the festivals that emerged in the last two decades of the nineteenth century and up until the outbreak of the Second World War, have a historical significance that has escaped the attention of scholars working within rather than across national and generic boundaries.

LITR Tragedy at University of Houston-Clear Lake

In their large-scale revival of Greek tragedy, theater festivals proved to be an international as well as national phenomenon. To develop a comparative perspective on this dramatic phenomenon, it is [End Page ] important to notice the interconnections and affinities of the festivals under consideration in terms of artistic principles and ideological aspirations, the speed with which they spread across Europe, and the wide range of cultural, social, and political practices on which they drew.

While a comprehensive study might consider synchronically how theater festivals differ from other festal activities of the period such as official and unofficial ceremonies, processions, marches, demonstrations of civilian citizenry, or ambitious building programs of festival pavilions, open-air stadiums, and exhibition halls or diachronically how festivals of Greek drama relate to festivals of theater, culture, and festivity of other periods such as those that emerged in medieval times, in the royal courts of France and Italy, during the French Revolution, or in the aftermath of World War IImy interest here is in the utopian politics of classical reception.

I will analyze the political contradictions of such theater festivals, as they sought to reclaim Greek drama as heritage to be displayed for the benefit and education of broadly defined communities. Festivals transformed the nostalgia for a lost order that cannot be recaptured and the discontent with a fragmented and heterogeneous present to a search for community and plenitude in the future.

Like carnivals and other manifestations of festal culture, festivals can be seen as a radical force of protest, subversion, and revolt, but also as an ultimately conservative force, a carefully controlled safety valve helping to maintain the political and social status quo.

Do festive practices have to be part of a wider strategy of resistance to play a significant role in effecting political change? The dialogue into which festivals enter with dominant social and political discourses, whether official state discourse or influential social movements, does not have to be antagonistic for festivals to maintain their politically transformative force.

As I will argue below, what makes festivals a productive site for artistic, political, and hermeneutic negotiation is precisely the unresolved tension between the festivals' preoccupation with the cultural past and their orientation toward the future of the community, between their aspirations for artistic autonomy and their embodiment of social and political practices and strategies, and, finally, between their search for coherence and meaningfulness and their encounter with dissonance and fragmentation.

Apart from the civic festivals of fifth-century Athens to which I will return belowthe single most important event in the prehistory [End Page ] of modern festivals of Greek drama was the opera festival that Richard Wagner inaugurated in in the small town of Bayreuth, in southern Germany.

In the spirit of German romanticism, Wagner sought to create a musical drama serving the same communal ambitions as the drama of classical Athens.

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As a new Aeschylus, Wagner addressed his modern Oresteia, The Ring of the Nibelungs, to "the people" at large, rather than to the bourgeois "public," seeking to replace conventional opera with a new lyric drama in which dramatic, musical, and visual-art values would once again be inextricably linked so as to serve communal ends.

Wagner's music dramas, repeated on a regular basis, in an opera house built especially for this purpose, offered a sense of ritual and communality. What is more, this semireligious experience, which fused German mythological traditions with the art and politics of Greek drama, helped shape a sanctioned past for its audience, providing the socially and politically heterogeneous audiences of Wagner's festival with a national identity Dahlhaus; Frank; Spotts.

It is in this sense of a multimedia spectacle dramatizing and celebrating the unity of the nation that Bayreuth became an institution of the newly created Second German Empire Wessling and a symbol and prototype for the theater festivals of Greek drama to come. The appropriation of Wagner's music, ideas, and the Bayreuth festival itself by National Socialism is only one dimension of a much richer and more diverse legacy that throughout the late nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth century spread across Europe and North America and which, under the concept of "Wagnerism," encompassed a wide range of often competing visions and interests by artists, intellectuals, entrepreneurs, and politicians Weber.

Wagner's music dramas and his views on the power of Greek tragedy to revitalize the theatrical practice acted as a catalyst for the revival of ancient drama on the modern stage: Bayreuth became a reference point, a model and antagonist against which the achievement and success of all subsequent festivals of ancient drama were to be measured.

Around the same time, the Greek journalist and novelist Pavlos Nirvanas put forward his vision for the revival of ancient drama in Greece in an article entitled "Greek Bayreuth" Sideris, — And in the early s the Italian scholar and theater director Vincenzo Bonaiuto gave his review article of the Syracuse Greek play festival the title "Syracuse, Bayreuth of the Classical Theatre" "Sira cusa, Bayreuth del teatro classico".

Rituals of dissolution and renewal

The impact of Richard Wagner on theater theory and practice was felt first of all in Germany itself. At the beginning of the twentieth century the German director Max Reinhardt used Greek drama as a platform for his vision of a "theater of the people," a theater that departed from the bourgeois character and spatial structure of the naturalistic proscenium theater.Edexcel drama a level June Lysistrata watch.

Announcements. Section C was primarily about comparing the modern production with its original conditions. I hope everyone did well.

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A modern production of lysistrata essay

IB Students: What are your extended essay topics? Lysistrata Of Aristophanes Essay Words | 5 Pages The Lysistrata of Aristophanes Aristophanes was a satirist who produced Lysistrata around BC when the news of Athen’s warships had been destroyed near Sicily.

Lysistrata and The Importance of Being Ernest comparative essay Lysistrata is a play that was set in Athens between and BC. At the time the play was set, women were expected to have no rights in society, and were not allowed/expected to discuss their opinions in matters subjective to men only.

A Modern Production of Lysistrata - In a modern day production of Lysistrata, a director’s role would involve the overseeing of the whole play making course and ensuring that all the cast members realize the vision of the production. This role covers all the steps of production from the interpretation of the script to the final performance.

Sep 18,  · To get a completely brand-new, plagiarism-free essay, please use our essay writing service. One click instant price quote Aristophanes was a satirist who produced Lysistrata around BC when the news of Athens warships had been destroyed near Sicily. Gandhiji.

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