The Four Theories of Personality by Alan Valdez - Updated September 26, Every person has a unique personality consisting of a distinctive pattern of thinking, perceiving and relating with the world.
Philosophical assumptions[ edit ] Many of the ideas developed by historical and modern personality theorists stem from the basic philosophical assumptions they hold.
The study of personality is not a purely empirical discipline, as it brings in elements of artscienceand philosophy to draw general conclusions.
The following five categories are some of the most fundamental philosophical assumptions on which theorists disagree: Behavior is categorized as being either unconscious, environmental or biological by various theories. Contemporary research suggests that most personality traits are based on the joint influence of genetics and environment.
One of the forerunners in this arena is C. Robert Cloningerwho pioneered the Temperament and Character model. Gordon AllportAbraham Maslowand Carl Rogers were all advocates of the uniqueness of individuals. Behaviorists and cognitive theorists, in contrast, emphasize the importance of universal principles, such as reinforcement and self-efficacy.
Traditional behavioral theorists typically believed that humans are passively shaped by their environments, whereas humanistic and cognitive theorists believe that humans are more active in their role. Theories that place a great deal of emphasis on learning are often more optimistic than those that do not.
Personality types are distinguished from personality traitswhich come in different degrees. There are many types of theories regarding personality, but each theory contains several and sometimes many sub theories. A "theory of personality" constructed by any given psychologist will contain multiple relating theories or sub theories often expanding as more psychologist explore the theory.
According to trait theories, introversion and extroversion are part of a continuous dimension with many people in the middle. The idea of psychological types originated in the theoretical work of Carl Jung specifically in his book Psychologische Typen Psychological Types and William Marston.
Briggs, delineated personality types by constructing the Myers—Briggs Type Indicator. Theories could also be considered an "approach" to personality or psychology and is generally referred to as a model. The model is an older and more theoretical approach to personality, accepting extroversion and introversion as basic psychological orientations in connection with two pairs of psychological functions: Briggs and Myers also added another personality dimension to their type indicator to measure whether a person prefers to use a judging or perceiving function when interacting with the external world.
Therefore, they included questions designed to indicate whether someone wishes to come to conclusions judgment or to keep options open perception.
An "N" is further assumed to be guided either by thinking or feeling and divided into the "NT" scientist, engineer or "NF" author, humanitarian temperament. Critics of this traditional view have observed that the types can be quite strongly stereotyped by professions although neither Myers nor Keirsey engaged in such stereotyping in their type descriptions and thus may arise more from the need to categorize people for purposes of guiding their career choice.
It should be noted, however, that the MBTI is not designed to measure the "work self", but rather what Myers and McCaulley called the "shoes-off self. They theorized that intense, hard-driving Type A personalities had a higher risk of coronary disease because they are "stress junkies.
There was also a Type AB mixed profile. In this circumplex model, the six types are represented as a hexagon, with adjacent types more closely related than those more distant. The model is widely used in vocational counseling. Niemeyer, ; English translation by P.
Pigors - New York: The Enneagram of Personalitya model of human personality which is principally used as a typology of nine interconnected personality types.
It has been criticized as being subject to interpretation, making it difficult to test or validate scientifically.The Four temperament theory is a proto-psychological theory that suggests that there are four fundamental personality types: sanguine, choleric, Horus Lupercal, maintains an inner circle of 4 advisors known as “The Mournival”, chosen as exemplars of the Four Temperaments.
Abstract This essay includes an overview study of four personality theorists. The works of B.F. Skinner, Carl Jung, Carl Rogers, and Erik Erikson have all been explored to gain insight into the human psyche. The four main types of personality theories are the psychodynamic approach, the humanistic approach, the trait approach, and the social cognitive approach.
Whilst the four humors may not determine personality, subsequent theories provide genetic and neurochemical explanations of human behavior. Moreover, some modern theories of personality, such as the five-factor model, recognize traits which to some extent resemble the temperaments of .
Personality Theories Chapter Chapter Beagly. STUDY.
PLAY. The Four Major Theories of Personality. Psychoanalytical, Behaviorism, Humanistic, Trait. Psychoanalytic. The Personality Theory that emphasizes the importance of motive hidden deep in the unconsciousness.
The four primary of theories of personality are psychoanalytic, social-learning, self-growth and traits-based. Psychodynamic Theories Psychodynamic theories focus on the inner workings of personality, especially internal conflicts and struggles. Numerous personality theories exist and most of the major ones fall into one of four major perspectives. Each of these perspectives on personality attempts to describe different patterns in personality, including how these patterns form and how people differ on an individual level. Abstract This essay includes an overview study of four personality theorists. The works of B.F. Skinner, Carl Jung, Carl Rogers, and Erik Erikson have all been explored to gain insight into the human psyche.
Neo-Freudians. These theories are sometimes referred to a psychometric theories, because of their emphasis on measuring personality by using psychometric tests. Trait scores are continuous (quantitative) variables. A person is given numeric score to indicate how much of a trait the they plombier-nemours.com: Saul Mcleod.